Commercial felling of trees is one for the main reasons of deforestation. According to a report, more than 1,600 million cubic metres of wood have been used for different purposes in the world. But they are cutting them on a very large scale so that the revival cannot be possible.
The adverse consequences of this have resulted in various environmental issues that are now coming into existence like Global warming, Pollution etc. So there is the immediate need for forest conservation. Following are some steps in this regards:
#1 Reforestation and Afforestation
The sustained concept dictates that whenever timber is removed, the denuded area must be reforested. Any forested land, which has been destroyed by fire or mining activities, should be reforested. Fresh afforestation programmes should be started. Selection of trees should be done according to local geographical conditions while afforestation and care must be taken during the initial growth of the trees.
#2 Regulated and Planned Cutting of Trees
One of the main reasons for deforestation is commercial felling of trees. According to the reports, more than 1,600 million cubic metres of wood has been used for various purposes in the world. Although trees are considered as a perennial resource, when exploited on a very large scale, their revival cannot be possible.
Therefore, cutting should be regulated by adopting methods like:
(i) Clear cutting,
(ii) Selective cutting, and
(iii) Shelter wood cutting.
#3 Protection of Forests
The existing forests should be protected. There are several forest diseases resulting from parasitic fungi, mistletoes, rusts, viruses and nematodes which cause the destruction of trees. The forests should be protected either by use of chemical spray, antibiotics or by the development of disease-resistant strains of trees.
#4 Control over Forest Fire
Trees are highly exposed to fire and so that destruction or loss of forest by fire is very common. In the US, fires consumed an average of 21.5 million acres of timber every year. Some of the techniques for fire suppression are to develop three-four metre wide fire lanes around the periphery of the fire, back fires, fire retardant chemicals, the arrangement of water spray, should be sprayed from the back tank or helicopters. There must be trained staff of fire fighters to control the fire.
#5 Proper Utilisation of Forest and their products
Trees are cut for branches, logs, limbs, stump and foliage, etc., is left out as worthless debris. Further waste occurs at the saw mills. There is thus need to utilise this waste material. Today, several uses have been developed and products like waterproof glues, boar etc., can be obtained.
We can develop Forests as tourist centres to earn foreign exchange. This practice should be adopted by both developed and developing countries.
#6 Check Forest Clearance for Agricultural and Habitation Purposes
Most of the present-day agricultural land was once forested and then cleared for the use of agriculture. There are tribal areas in many parts of Africa, Asia and South America, where shifting cultivation is a part of land procurement.
According to an estimate, about 40 million sq km of land is used for this purpose by 200 million tribal’s of the world. Forest lands have been cleared for the development of villages, cities and towns.